General Manuel Antonio Noriega, former military leader of Panama, has died aged 83, officials have announced.
Noriega recently underwent an operation after suffering a haemorrhage following brain surgery.
Noriega had been a key US ally but was forcibly removed when American troops invaded in 1989 and was later jailed in the US on drugs and laundering charges.
He spent the rest of his life in custody, latterly in Panama for murder, corruption and embezzlement.
But the former leader was released into house arrest in January to prepare for the operation in early March to remove a brain tumour.
He underwent further surgery after cerebral bleeding but died late on Monday in Panama City’s Santo Tomas hospital.